The Achilles tendon is the strongest tendon in the body. It is vitally important for walking and for any sporting activities. Achilles tendon problems are very common and range from tendinitis and tendinosis (inflammation and degeneration of the tendon itself) to ruptures of the tendon.
Ankle arthritis is a very common condition that I treat. The ankle is unique in that primary ankle arthritis, the wear-and-tear arthritis, is very rare in the ankle. Ankle arthritis almost always develops from prior trauma to the ankle (an ankle fracture, or multiple ankle sprains) or malalignment of the foot or lower leg.
Bunions or hallux valgus refers to the bump at the base of the big toe and the lateral deviation of the great toe. Bunions are caused by a combination of shoe wear and heredity, but heredity plays the most important role. We see many patients with bunions who tell us that their mother or sister have similar feet.
The most commonly torn tendon in the adult foot and ankle population is the posterior tibial tendon. This is the tendon that goes down the inside of the ankle and allows your to go up on your toes and to push off when you walk.
Hallux rigidus or osteoarthritis of the first MP joint (great toe joint) is a very common condition affecting adults. The symptoms are pain and stiffness in the toe. Patients also have difficulty getting up on their toe, running and wearing a high-heeled shoe.
The Lisfranc is a ligament of the foot that runs between two bones called the medial cuneiform and the second metatarsal. The name comes from French surgeon Jacques Lisfranc de St. Martin (1790-1847), who was the first physician to describe injuries to this ligament.
Neuroma is another common condition we see in the office. A neuroma is a benign tumor of a nerve, however, a Morton’s neuroma is not actually a tumor, but a thickening of the tissue around the nerve that leads to your toes.
Osteochondral lesions of the talus are injuries to the cartilage in the bone inside the ankle joint. This is often referred to as a chip inside your ankle joint. This commonly occurs after an ankle sprain where the two bones hit against each other, causing a piece of cartilage and bone to chip off inside the ankle.
The peroneal tendons run on the outside of the ankle just behind the bone called the fibula. Tendons connect muscle to bone and allow them to exert their force across the joints that separate bones. Ligaments, on the other hand, connect bone to bone. Tendinitis implies that there is inflammation in the tendon.
Pilon fractures affect the bottom of the shinbone (tibia) at the ankle joint. In most cases, both bones in the lower leg, the tibia and fibula, are broken near the ankle.
The plantar fascia is a thick fibrous band of tissue originating at the bottom of your heel bone and extending along the sole of the foot towards the toes.
Damage to the posterior tibial tendon is the most common cause of AAFD.
The posterior tibial tendon is one of the most important tendons of the leg. It starts at a muscle in the calf, travels down the inside of the lower leg and attaches to the bones on the inside of the foot.
DR. MARTIN J. O’MALLEY
Orthopaedic Surgeon Specializing in Reconstructive Surgery of the Foot and Ankle 420 E 72nd St Suite 1 B New York, NY 10021